In 2013, the fungus was found in North Carolina, but the beetle has yet to be collected there.  A similar instance occurred during this same time period in Delta, a city nearly four hundred kilometers west of Denver.  However, since the magnitude of the number of holes in one tree bored by the walnut tree beetle is so great, this method does not seem to be an effective solution either. Forest Service scientists are working to better understand the biology of the walnut twig beetle and Geosmithia morbida in order to develop controls for this disease. They are likely to act like non-native pests in naïve ecosystems in North America and, now, Europe.  Bark beetles are a major natural disturbance in North American forests, in recent history affecting more area annually than fire does. "Thousand cankers disease" was given its name because of the magnitude of galleries and subsequent cankers created by the disturbance regime of walnut twig beetles and Geosmithia morbida. The black walnuts only survived for several years after the start of feeding by the walnut twig beetle. The walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, is a small native phloeophagous (phloem-feeding) insect that has recently been associated with the fungus Geosmithia morbida. The walnut twig beetle's hard shell covers two wings, and because the beetle can fly, Geosmithia morbida is reliant on the walnut twig beetle to be spread across distances, making the fungus entomochoric, or completely dependent upon the walnut twig beetle for dispersal, and only found in habitats containing the beetle. Small cankers then form around the galleries, girdling the branches. ... such as those used so effectively in control of Dutch elm disease, have more modest effectiveness in management of thousand cankers disease. The walnut twig beetle is native to Arizona, California, and New Mexico; however the beetle and fungus have been found in eastern states. are poorly known native insects that attack conifers.  The establishment of quarantine in the area was enacted, denoting a most drastic need to stop the spread of the disease. The origin of Geosmithia morbida is not known, but experts strongly believe that its emergence is connected to the walnut tree beetle and the Arizona walnut tree, and was not caused by the transfer of the disease from another area but instead by an evolutionary change in a similar species of fungi that inhabited closely to where the beetle was first identified. Find research publications about the walnut twig beetle on Treesearch. Community officials claim that the best thing people can do is not transport firewood, limiting the human spread of the disease. The beetle is native to Arizona, California, New Mexico, and northern Mexico. Curtis Utley, a researcher at Colorado State University, elaborates on these differences stating, "Among these differences there are the 4 to 6 concentric rows of asperities on the prothorax, usually broken and overlapping at the median line. In 2012 the fungus was found in Butler county, Ohio. Forest Service scientists are working to better understand the biology of the walnut twig beetle and Geosmithia morbida in order to develop controls for this disease.  The fungus and beetle have developed a symbiotic relationship in which the fungus allows itself to be eaten by the beetle in return for a ride to the fungus's next host.  The movement of this insect from Arizona to the surrounding areas was recorded in 1959 in Los Angeles when the walnut twig beetle was collected from both the black walnut and the native southern California black walnut, Juglans californica. The walnut twig beetle is commonly associated with the fungus Geosmithia morbida that causes damage ranging from discoloration in some species of walnuts to mortality in others. Walnut twig beetles on head of a penny for size comparison. Pruning a tree is one way humans combat fungi spread by bark beetles, and has been the reported course of action to take when dealing with similar fungi such as the Dutch elm disease. In 2010 an outbreak of both Geosmithia morbida and the walnut twig beetle was identified in the community of Knoxville, Tennessee, threatening over 27 million black walnuts in Tennessee alone. The fungus and beetle only infest walnut trees; the adult beetle constructs galleries in the phloem, where the fungal spores are introduced. In 2004, extensive mortality in the Front Range of Colorado was linked to the presence of the beetle and the fungus it carries, Geosmithia morbida. TCD is an example of a native forest health condition where the biotic agents (beetle and fungus) have expanded their geographic ranges and switched to new host species with no coevolved resistance. Pityophthorus juglandis, also known as the walnut twig beetle for feeding on several different species of walnut trees, Juglans, is one of only a few species in the genus Pityophthorus that is associated with hardwoods and the only one associated with feeding on walnut trees. Walnut twig beetle and associated staining around tunnel. In 2010, it was found in Tennessee, the first report in the native distribution of black walnut. In the Southwest it attacks Arizona walnut. The declivity at the end of the wing covers is steep, very shallowly bisulcate, and at the apex it is generally flattened with small granules. Because the beetle can attack the trunk, pruning is rendered useless. The beetle is the vector of a fungus that causes  Bark beetles usually feast on limbs no greater than 10 centimetres (3.9 inches) in diameter, spreading Dutch elm disease to a place that is still manageable to prune. Life History and Habits. , Pityophthorus juglandis can easily be distinguished from other members of its genus. " The walnut twig beetles' small size is common for its genus. Currently, orchard sanitation is the primary strategy for walnut twig beetle management within orchards. To learn more, contact Steven Seybold, a Research Entomologist specializing in the study of bark and wood-boring beetles, , The walnut twig beetle is not the first bark beetle to be associated with a species of Geosmithia. No visual signs of TCD were observed and on WTB were collected. The walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, has been associated with widespread mortality of black walnut in the western U.S.